Which Of The Following Factors Is Not An Extracellular Signal That Regulates Progression Through Cell Cycle Checkpoints? (2023)

1. Signaling Pathways that Regulate Cell Division - PMC - NCBI

  • Cell division requires careful orchestration of three major events: entry into mitosis, chromosomal segregation, and cytokinesis.

  • Cell division requires careful orchestration of three major events: entry into mitosis, chromosomal segregation, and cytokinesis. Signaling within and between the molecules that control these events allows for their coordination via checkpoints, a specific ...

2. Extracellular Control of Cell Division, Cell Growth, and Apoptosis - NCBI

  • Some extracellular signal proteins, including PDGF, can act as both growth factors and mitogens, stimulating both cell growth and cell-cycle progression. This ...

  • A fertilized mouse egg and a fertilized human egg are similar in size, yet they produce animals of very different sizes. What factors in the control of cell behavior in humans and mice are responsible for these size differences? The same fundamental question can be asked for each organ and tissue in an animal's body. What factors in the control of cell behavior explain the length of an elephant's trunk or the size of its brain or its liver? These questions are largely unanswered, at least in part because they have received relatively little attention compared with other questions in cell and developmental biology. It is nevertheless possible to say what the ingredients of an answer must be.

3. Regulation of Cell Cycle Progression by Growth Factor-Induced ... - MDPI

4. Cell cycle checkpoints (article) | Khan Academy

  • Is the cell receiving positive cues (such as growth factors) from neighbors? DNA integrity. Is any of the DNA damaged? These are not the only factors that can ...

  • Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Khan Academy is a nonprofit with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.

5. Cell Cycle and Proliferation - Portland Press

  • Cell proliferation is the process whereby cells reproduce themselves by growing and then dividing into two equal copies. Growth factors employ a range of ...

6. [PDF] LETTERS - Molecular and Cell Biology |

  • genes conserved in human) on cell-cycle progression of S2 cells using flow ... COP9 signalosome activity and four extracellular-signal-regulated pathways ...

7. What Is a Cell Growth Factor? - Akadeum Life Sciences

  • ... intracellular signals that reach the nucleus to trigger cell division. RTKs are ... These mechanisms come in the form of checkpoints throughout the cell cycle.

  • Growth factors are extracellular molecules that regulate cell growth, proliferation, expansion, differentiation, and cell death by binding to surface receptors.

8. Cell Cycle Checkpoints | Biology for Majors I - Lumen Learning

  • ... checkpoints, there are two groups of intracellular molecules that regulate the cell cycle. These regulatory molecules either promote progress of the cell to ...

  • As we just learned, the cell cycle is a fairly complicated process. In order to make sure everything goes right, there are checkpoints in the cycle. Let’s learn about these and how they help control the cell cycle.

9. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 increases radioresistance of lung ...

  • Feb 21, 2019 · These data suggest that ERK5 can promote A549 lung cancer cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle progression partly through upregulating cyclin ...

  • Radiotherapy is a frequent mode of cancer treatment, although the development of radioresistance limits its effectiveness. Extensive investigations indicate the diversity of the mechanisms underlying radioresistance. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) on lung cancer radioresistance and the associated mechanisms. Our data showed that ERK5 is activated during solid lung cancer development, and ectopic expression of ERK5 promoted cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle transition. In addition, we found that ERK5 is a potential regulator of radiosensitivity in lung cancer cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ERK5 could trigger IR-induced activation of Chk1, which has been implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle arrest in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Subsequently, ERK5 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition selectively inhibited colony formation of lung cancer cells and enhanced IR-induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. In vivo, ERK5 knockdown strongly radiosensitized A549 and LLC tumor xenografts to inhibition, with a higher apoptotic response and reduced tumor neovascularization. Taken together, our data indicate that ERK5 is a novel potential target for the treatment of lung cancer, and its expression might be used as a biomarker to predict radiosensitivity in NSCLC patients. Resistance to radiotherapy in patients with lung cancer may be countered by targeting a protein involved in promoting DNA repair. Radiotherapy causes DNA double-stranded breaks in lung cancer cells in order to kill them. However, cancer cells can show improved DNA repair and responses to damage, resulting in resistance to treatment. Zi-Chun Hua, Hongqin Zhuang at Nanjing University in China and co-workers examined the activity of the extracellular signal-related kinase 5 (ERK5) protein in response to the stress of ionizing radiation. They found that after radiation exposure ERK5 increased expression of another protein involved in DNA repair, facilitating cancer cell recovery. Knocking out ERK5 suppressed this resistance to radiotherapy. ERK5 could be a valuable target for treating lung cancer, and ERK5 expression level could be used as a biomarker for patient sensitivity to radiotherapy.

10. Cell cycle arrest by transforming growth factor-β and its disruption in ...

  • Apr 1, 2000 · Altered responsiveness to extracellular signals and cell cycle dysregulation are hallmarks of cancer ... not function normally in these cells [84] ...

  • Altered responsiveness to extracellular signals and cell cycle dysregulation are hallmarks of cancer. The cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) that integrate mitogenic and growth inhibitory signals. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β mediates G1 cell cycle arrest by inducing or activating cdk inhibitors, and by inhibiting factors required for cdk activation. Mechanisms that lead to cell cycle arrest by TGF-β are reviewed. Loss of growth inhibition by TGF-β occurs early in breast cell transformation, and may contribute to breast cancer progression. Dysregulation of cell cycle effectors at many different levels may contribute to loss of G1 arrest by TGF-β. Elucidation of these pathways in breast cancer may ultimately lead to novel and more effective treatments for this disease.

11. Mitotic Aberration Coupled With Centrosome Amplification Is ...

  • The phospho-ERK level during cell cycle progression is substantially high in ChangX-34 cells. ... Distinct cell cycle timing requirements for extracellular signal ...

12. Productive T-cell receptor beta-chain gene rearrangement

  • CTCF regulates cell cycle progression of {alpha}{beta} T cells in the thymus ... Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (Erk) Activation by the Pre-T Cell ...

  • A biweekly scientific journal publishing high-quality research in molecular biology and genetics, cancer biology, biochemistry, and related fields

13. 10.3C: Regulator Molecules of the Cell Cycle - Biology LibreTexts

  • Jun 8, 2022 · ... checkpoints, there are two groups of intracellular molecules that regulate the cell cycle. ... progress of the cell through the various ...

  • The cell cycle is controlled by regulator molecules that either promote the process or stop it from progressing.

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